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Roman calendar and festivals

Origially the Roman calendar an festivals were based upon the mooncycle. The three anchor points Kalends Nonis and Ides stem therefrom: Kalends is new moon, Nonis the first quarter and Ides the full moon.
Though this relation was abandonned and  fixed in this solar calendar, they were still used to indicate the days in the months.
The day would be indicated as the number of days before the next nonis, ides or kalends, but inclusive that day.
3 examples:

January 2 : Ante diem IV Non. Ian . (4 days to nonis of January)
May    26 : Ante diem VII kal. Iun. (VII days to the kalend of June)
The last day before kalends,nones or ides was called pridie...: march 6 : Pridie nonas Mart.

All these indications are easely found in the Roman calendar and festivals.

The Roman did not know weeks as we do now, bus used a system of 8 days: A B C D E F G H, where day H was the market day.

Roman calender before Iualian reforms Thanks to Wikipedia

At this calender from before Julius Ceasar (July is still called Quintilis)
It was  one of the tasks of the pontifices to  determine which days  were fasti (F) or nefasti (N), days when legal matters could or could not be handled.
On days marked with a C a comitia (public assembly) was allowed etc


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Ianuarius
Februarius
Martius
1
KALENDS
1
KALENDS
1
KALENDS new Year; Matronalia
             Feriae Marti 
             Renewal of the fire of Vesta
2
IV      Compitalia
2
IV 2
VI
3
III
3
III
3
V
4
PRIDIE NONAS 4
PRIDIE NONAS 4
IV
5
NONIS 5
NONIS 5 III
6
VIII 6
VIII 6
PRIDIE NONAS
7
VII 7
VII 7
NONIS
8
VI 8
VI 8
VIII
9
V       Agonalia
9
V 9
VII
10
IV
10
IV 10
VI
11
III      Carmentalia
11
III 11
V
12
PRIDIE IDUS
12
PRIDIE IDUS 12
IV
13
IDES 13
IDES                Parentalia  Lupercalia
13
III
14
XIX
14
XVI (XVII)         Parentalia  Lupercalia 14
PRIDIE IDUS  2nd Equirria
15
XVIII    Carmentalia 15
XV (XVI)           Parentalia  Lupercalia 15
IDES            Bacchanalia
16
XVII
16
XIV (XV)           Parentalia 16
XVII             Bacchanalia
17
XVI
17
XIII (XIV)          Parentalia   Quirianlia
17
XVI              Agonalia
18
XV
18
XII (XIII)           Parentalia 18
XV
19
XIV
19
XI (XII)             Parentalia 19
XIV               Quinquatria
20
XIII
20
X (XI)               Parentalia 20
XIII              Quinquatria           
21
XII
21
IX (X)               Parentalia    Feralia
21
XII               Quinquatria
22
XI
22
VIII (IX)            Parentalia 22
XI                Quinquatria
23
X
23
VII (VIII)           Terminalia
23
X                 Quinquatria Tubilustrium
24
IX        Sementivae
24
VI (VII)
24
IX
25
VIII      Sementivae 25
V (VI)
25
VIII
26
VII       Sementivae 26
IV (V)
26
VII
22
VI
27
III (VI)               Equirria
27
VI
82
V
28
PRIDIE KALEND.(III) 28
V
29
IV
29
(PD)
29
IV
30
III


30
III                Salus
31
PRIDIE KALEND


31
PRIDIE KALEND

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APRILIS
MAIUS
IUNIUS
1
KALENDS           Veneralia
1
KALENDS    Floralia Bona Dea 1
KALENDS
2
IV
2
VI
2
IV
3
III
3
V
3
III                 Bellona
4
PRIDIE NONAS  Ludi Megalenses 4
IV
4
PRIDIE NONAS
5
NONIS             Ludi Megalenses 5
III
5 NONIS
6
VIII                 Ludi Megalenses 6
PRIDIE NONAS 6
VIII
7
VII                  Ludi Megalenses 7
NONIS 7
VII                 Vestalia
8
VI                   Ludi Megalenses 8
VIII
8
VI                  Vestalia
9
V                    Ludi Megalenses 9
VII            Lemuria
9
V                   Vestalia
10
IV                   Ludi Megalenses 10
VI
10
IV                  Vestalia
11
III
11
V
11
III                  Vestalia
12
PRIDIE IDUS      Ludi Cereales 12
IV
12
PRIDIE IDUS    Vestalia
13
IDES                Ludi Cereales 13
III
13
IDES     Vestalia / Quinquatrus m
14
XVIII                Ludi Cereales 14
PRIDIE IDUS 14
XVIII               Vestalia
15
XVII                 Ludi Cereales     Fordicidia 15
IDES         Mercuralia 15
XVII                Vestalia
16
XVI                  Ludi Cereales 16
XVII
16
XVI
17
XV                   Ludi Cereales 17
XVI
17
XV
18
XIV                  Ludi Cereales 18
XV
18
XIV
19
XIII                  Ludi Cereales 19
XIV
19
XIII                 Adonia
20
XII
20
XIII
20
XII         festival i.o. Summanus
21
XI                   Parilia
21
XII             Veiovis
21
XI
22
X
22
XI
22
X
23
IX                   Vinalia urbana
23
X
23
IX
24
VIII
24
IX
24
VIII
25
VII                  Robigalia
25
VIII
25
VII
26
VI
26
VII
26
VI
22
V
27
VI
27
V
28
IV                   Floralia
28
V
28
IV
29
III                   Floralia 29
IV
29
III
30
PRIDIE KALEND Floralia 30
III
30
PRIDIE KALEND

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31
PRIDIE KALEND.
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QUINTILIS (IULIUS)
SEXTILIS (AUGUSTUS)
SEPTEMBER Septimontium
1
Kalendis        Poplifugia 1
Kalendis
1
Kalendis
2
VI
2
IV
2
IV
3
V
3
III
3
III
4
IV
4
PRIDIE NONAS 4
PRIDIE NONAS Ludi Romani
5
III
5
NONIS 5 NONIS            Ludi Romani
6
PRIDIE NONAS  Ludi Apollinares 6
VIII
6
VIII                Ludi Romani
7
NONIS             Ludi Apollinares  Nonae caprotinae
                                             Sacerdotes publici
7
VI
7
VII                 Ludi Romani
8
VIII                 Ludi Apollinares 8
VI
8
VI                  Ludi Romani
9
VII                  Ludi Apollinares   Caprotinia 9
V
9
V                   Ludi Romani
10
VI                   Ludi Apollinares 10
IV              Opalia
10
IV                  Ludi Romani
11
IVV                 Ludi Apollinares 11
III 11
III                  Ludi Romani
12
III                   Ludi Apollinares 12
PRIDIE IDUS 12
PRIDIE IDUS    Ludi Romani
13
PRIDIE IDUS     Ludi Apollinares 13
IDES   Vertumnalia Nemoralia 13
IDES              Ludi Romani
14
IDES 14
XIX
14
XVIII              Ludi Romani
15
XVIII
15
XVIII
15
XVII               Ludi Romani
16
XVII
16
XVII
16
XVI                Ludi Romani
17
XVI
17
XVI            Vinalia Rustica
17
XV                 Ludi Romani
18
XV
18
XV
18
XIV                Ludi Romani
19
XIV                    Lucaria
19
XIV
19
 XIII               Ludi Romani
20
XIII
20
XIII
20
XII
21
XII
21
XII             Consualia
21
XI
22
XI
22
XI
22
X
23
X                      Neptunalia
23
X               Vulcanalia
23
IX
24
IX
24
IX
24
VIII
25
VIII
25
VIII            Opiconsivia
25
VII
26
VII
26
VII
26
VI                  Venus genetrix
22
VI
27
VI              Volturnalia
27
V
82
V
28
V               festival of Sol
28
IV
29
IV
29
IV
29
III
30
III
30
III
30
PRIDIE KALEND
31
PRIDIE KALEND. 31
PRIDIE KALEND.
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OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
1
KALENDS
1
KALENDS
1
KALENDS
2
VI
2
IV
2
IV
3
V
3
III
3
III
4
IV       leiunius Cereris
4
PRIDIE NONAS   Ludi Plebeii
4
PRIDIE NONAS   Bona Dea
5
III    Mundus open
5
IDIBUS             Ludi Plebeii 5 IDIBUS             Faunalia
6
PRIDIE NONAS 6
VIII                  Ludi Plebeii 6
VIII
7
IDIBUS 7
VII                   Ludi Plebeii 7
VII
8
VIII
8
VI                    Ludi Plebeii 8
VI
9
VII
9
V                     Ludi Plebeii 9
V
10
VI
10
IV                    Ludi Plebeii 10
IV
11
V          Meditrinalia
11
III                    Ludi Plebeii 11
III                    Agonalia; Septimontium
12
IV
12
PRIDIE IDUS      Ludi Plebeii 12
PRIDIE IDUS
13
III         Fontinalia
13
IDES                Ludi Plebeii Epulum Jovis 13
IDES
14
PRIDIE IDUS 14
XVIII                Ludi Plebeii 14
XIX
15
IDES      Equirria
15
XVII                 Ludi Plebeii  Feronia 15
 XVIII                Consualia
16
XVI
16
XVI                  Ludi Plebeii 16
XVII
17
XV
17
XV                   Ludi Plebeii 17
XVI                    Saturnalia
18
XIV
18
XIV
18
XV                     Eponalia
19
XIII         Armilustrium
19
XIII
19
XIV                    Opalia
20
XII
20
XII
20
XIII
21
XI
21
XI
21
XII                     Divalia
22
X
22
X
22
XI
23
IX
23
IX
23
X                       Larentalia
24
VIII
24
VIII
24
IX
25
VII
25
VII
25
VIII   Dies natalis Solis invicti; Brumalia
26
I
26
VI
26
VII
22
V
27
V
27
VI
82
V
28
IV
28
V
29
IV
29
III
29
IV
30
III
30
PRIDIE KALEND. 30
III
31
PRIDIE KALEND.  

31
PRIDIE KALEND.